Host-Parasite Interactions (Society for Experimental Biology)
It prompted us to develop vaccine strains of Plasmodium falciparum Pf , a parasite that infects humans, by designing HRF mutant parasites, in collaboration with Sylvie Garcia who joined the BIHP Unit headed by Artur Scherf and who is developing a project to design humanized mice. Most recently, we began working with a Weizmann Institute team to analyze a new mode of parasite-parasite and parasite-host interactions through vesicles called exosomes.
In particular, we are working on the hypothesis that these exosomes modulate the immune response of the host in favor of parasite development. Indeed, we found that these vesicles are endowed with immunosuppressive properties with T cells as target cells. We have also initiated a project on immunity against hepatic stages of parasite development. This project consists in studying the effect of hepatic inflammation on the immune response against the parasite.
For this, mice deficient for the MDR2 gene, a flippase which allows the translocation of phospholipids from the hepatic cells to the biliary canaliculi so that micelles are formed with bile acids which render them nontoxic to the hepatic parenchyma. Preliminary results show that these mice do not become infected following the inoculation of sporozoites thus proving that the hepatic inflammatory response is deleterious for the parasite development.
We will develop our projects in the following directions:. During the past few years, using a murine model for experimental cerebral malaria ECM , we pursued our investigation regarding the contribution of the allergic inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of malaria disease. Following the […]. Host species with intrinsically large home ranges had the greatest increase in infection with microparasites in provisioned habitat.
Model comparison also illustrated that the association between home range size and microparasite risk was most pronounced for dietary generalists. Species with larger home ranges and broad dietary breadth, such as coyotes Canis latrans , baboons Papio anubis and cynocephalus and raccoons Procyon lotor showed the greatest increase in infection in provisioned habitat.
However, microparasite infection in species with wider home ranges but narrow dietary breadth, such as green sea turtles Chelonia mydas , white storks Ciconia ciconia , and Spanish imperial eagles Aquila adalberti , showed weaker responses to provisioning. Greater dietary breadth could enhance microparasite transmission in provisioned habitat if it facilitates exposure to bacteria and viruses within anthropogenic food e.
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Host migration status and trophic level did not appear to influence infection responses to provisioning. As with our findings for microparasites, species with large home ranges also had the greatest increase in prevalence or intensity with ectoparasites in provisioned habitat. Because this trait received strong support on its own i. This could arise from ectoparasites focusing questing behaviour towards areas with dense host populations Burg, In contrast to our results for microparasites and to our original predictions for this parasite group, provisioning increased ectoparasite outcomes slightly more for dietary specialists than for dietary generalists.
Furthermore, these results are difficult to properly interpret given that our ectoparasite data were dominated by omnivorous hosts 9 of 11 , with four species showing true dietary generalism five to six food items and remaining species showing mostly moderate dietary breadth three to four food items.
Host-Parasite Interactions (Society for Experimental Biology)
While we identified home range size and dietary breadth as key correlates for how microparasite and ectoparasite outcomes respond to provisioning, neither trait explained variation in helminth outcomes. One explanation could be that helminths with complex life cycles, common in our dataset, might not respond to increases in host aggregation.
Yet, we found evidence that omnivores show greater helminth infection with provisioning than herbivores. While this could imply support for the dietary mechanisms observed for microparasites e. In contrast to the results for microparasites and ectoparasites, the context of supplemental feeding was a more important predictor of effect sizes for helminths than host traits. Furthermore, this finding suggests that such risks for helminth infection may be more general and thus applicable across host taxa.
While this finding highlights further work is necessary to understand divergent infection outcomes from provisioning, particularly with helminths and to a certain extent microparasites, our analysis also provides an important step for predicting which species are prone to greater infection with microparasites and ectoparasites with anthropogenic resource shifts. As this species is also thought to have a moderately large home range Fleming, , this combination of traits would predict bats foraging in provisioned habitats to have higher odds of microparasite infection than those in unprovisioned habitats.
Targeted surveillance of species with similar trait profiles and in close contact with humans could help predict and manage these infectious disease risks. Our findings suggest these practices could most benefit dietary specialists with small home ranges when considering risks of microparasite infection.
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Owing to the narrow dietary breadth of lynx i. Specific nutrients or medications e. Our analyses also demonstrated mixed support for phylogenetic similarity as a tool to identify species with greater disease risks from provisioning. Importantly, as effect sizes for helminths were poorly explained by traits but had moderate H 2 , responses to provisioning could be better predicted by host phylogeny. Given the widespread nature of human activities that provision wildlife, understanding the intrinsic trait drivers of how infection responds to supplemental resources is important for conservation and human health and can inform ecological links between resource heterogeneity and host—parasite interactions.
Host trait profiles identified here suggest testable hypotheses for future field studies comparing infection outcomes between natural and provisioned populations. Future work across a broader range of taxa will enhance our predictions of which species tend to experience elevated infection by which parasite groups in response to provisioning and will hence increase our ability to manage emerging disease risks to wildlife, domestic animals and humans.
We thank John Drake, Seth Wegner, Patrick Stephens, members of the Altizer and Ezenwa groups at the University of Georgia, and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. We thank Travis Wilcoxen and Kristian Forbes for providing raw data for effect size calculations. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors.
Any queries other than missing content should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. Volume 87 , Issue 2. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Journal of Animal Ecology. Daniel J.
Experimental evidence that parasites drive eco-evolutionary feedbacks | PNAS
Becker Corresponding Author E-mail address: dbecker uga. Becker Email: dbecker uga. Daniel G. Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Summary This volume summarizes current research into the physiology and molecular biology of host-parasite interactions. Brought together by leading international experts in the field, the first section outlines fundamental processes, followed by specific examples in the concluding section.
Covering a wide range of organisms, Host-Parasite Interactions is essential reading for researchers in the field.
Table of Contents 1. Reviews This is an important contribution to the fields of parasitology and infectious diseases.
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