Franklin Delano Roosevelt - A Short Biography for Kids
His Fireside Chat speech on 9 December was widely seen as confirming the validity of the newspaper reports of Rainbow Five, and a de facto declaration of war against Germany and Italy. On September 13, , Roosevelt ordered the Atlantic Fleet to escort convoys in which there were no American vessels. This policy would make it more likely to provoke future incidents between American and German vessels.
Roosevelt also agreed to furnish Britain with "our best transport ships. Issued secret orders on August 25, , to the Atlantic Fleet to attack and destroy German and Italian "hostile forces. Roosevelt falsely claimed in a fireside chat to the American public on September 11, , that the German submarine had fired first.
The reality is that the Greer had tracked the German submarine for three hours, and broadcast the submarine's location for the benefit of any British airplanes and destroyers which might be in the vicinity. The German submarine fired at the Greer only after a British airplane had dropped four depth charges which missed their mark. During this fireside chat Roosevelt finally admitted that, without consulting Congress or obtaining congressional sanction, he had ordered a shoot-on-sight campaign against Axis submarines. On October 17, , an American destroyer, the Kearny, dropped depth charges on a German submarine.
The German submarine retaliated and hit the Kearny with a torpedo, resulting in the loss of 11 lives. An older American destroyer, the Reuben James, was sunk with a casualty list of of her crew members. Some of her seamen were convinced the Reuben James had already sunk at least one U-boat before she was torpedoed by the German submarine.
On October 27, , Roosevelt broadcast over nationwide radio his Navy Day address. He began his Navy Day address by stating that German submarines had torpedoed the U. Roosevelt characterized these incidents as unprovoked acts of aggression directed against all Americans, and that "history will record who fired the first shot. Hitler wanted to avoid war with the United States at all costs, and had expressly ordered German submarines to avoid conflicts with U.
It was Roosevelt's shoot-on-sight orders to U. Navy vessels that were designed to make incidents like the ones Roosevelt condemned inevitable. In reality Hitler had repeatedly urged the Japanese to avoid war with the US, and instead overrun British colonies like Singapore. He had an older half-brother, James, twenty-eight years older, whom he never got to meet. His "Arsenal of Democracy" speech on 29 December was widely viewed as a de facto declaration of war on the Axis Powers, and could have caused Germany and Italy to declare war on the United States.
After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which was followed by the declarations of war by Germany and Italy on the United States, Adolf Hitler , a pathological anti-Semite, claimed in a speech that ''the eternal Jew'' was the ''power behind Roosevelt''. The perceived Semitic influence over the US government was used as an excuse by Hitler to intensify Nazi persecution of the Jews in German-occupied Europe after the US officially entered the war. On 4 September , a German submarine fired on the U.
Roosevelt declared the U. Navy would assume an escort role for Allied convoys in the Battle of the Atlantic as far east as the United Kingdom, and would fire upon Axis ships or submarines U-boats of the Kriegsmarine if they entered the U. Navy zone. This "shoot on sight" policy effectively declared naval war on Germany and Italy, and was favored by Americans by a margin of 2-to He is often considered to be one of the greatest U.
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He opposed an investigation by the International Red Cross into the Katyn massacre. Introduced the "Cash and carry" policy to enable the UK and France to buy war materials from the United States on September 21, , despite much opposition from anti-war elements in Congress. In mid, Roosevelt moved the U.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
On October 8, , Admiral James O. As he had four terms, he is the only U. The map was actually a forgery from British intelligence. Yesterday, December 7th, , a date which will live in infamy, the United States was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval forces of Japan. What I want to do is to create a country in which no one is left out. I have seen war. I have seen war on land and on sea.
I hate war! No, not content with that, they now include my little dog Fala. The only limit to our realization of tomorrow will be our doubts of today. When you see a rattlesnake poised to strike, you do not wait until he has struck you before you crush him. The saving grace of America lies in the fact that the overwhelming majority are possessed of two great qualities--a sense of humor and a sense of proportion. You know, I am a juggler and I never let my right hand know what my left hand does.
I may have one policy for Europe and one diametrically opposite for North and South America. I may be entirely inconsistent, and furthermore I am perfectly willing to mislead and tell untruths if it will help win the war. I do not regard the Communists as any present or future threat to our country. In fact, I look upon Russia as our strongest ally in the years to come. While I do not believe in Communism, Russia under Communism is better than under the tsars. Stalin is a great leader, and although I despise some of his methods, it is the only way he can safeguard his government.
I can't believe that we can fight a war against fascist slavery, and at the same time not work to free people all over the world from a backward colonial policy? The peace cannot include any continued despotism Equality of peoples involves the utmost freedom of competitive trade.
I've tried to make it clear to Winston - and the others - that, while we're their allies and in it to victory by their side, they must never get the idea that we're in it just to help them hang on to the archaic, medieval empire ideas Great Britain signed the Atlantic Charter. I hope they realize the United States Government means to make them live up to it. I am expecting the Japs to attack any time now, probably within the next three or four days.
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November We expect to eliminate the danger from Japan, but it would serve us ill if we accomplished that and found that the rest of the world was dominated by Hitler and Mussolini. So we are going to win the war and we are going to win the peace that follows. We are committed to the proposition that the principles of morality and considerations of our own security will not permit us to acquiesce in a peace dictated by aggressors and sponsored by appeasers.
I may never declare war; I may make war. If I were to ask Congress to declare war, they might argue about it for three months. August We know that Germany and Japan are conducting their military and naval operations with a joint plan. Germany and Italy consider themselves at war with the United States without even bothering about a formal declaration Your government knows Germany has been telling Japan that if Japan would attack the United States, Japan would share the spoils when peace came.
She was promised by Germany that if she came in she would receive control of the whole Pacific area and that means not only the Far East, but all the islands of the Pacific and also a stranglehold on the west coast of North and Central and South America. If Great Britain goes down, the Axis powers will be in a position to bring enormous military and naval resources against this hemisphere We are the Arsenal of Democracy. Our national policy is to keep war away from this country. Upon our naval and air patrol - now operating in large number over a vast expanse of the Atlantic Ocean - falls the duty of maintaining the American policy of freedom of the seas - now.
That means, very simply, very clearly, that our patrolling vessels and planes will protect all merchant ships - not only American ships but ships of any flag - engaged in commerce in our defensive waters. They will protect them from submarines; they will protect them from surface raiders. It is no act of war on our part when we decide to protect the seas that are vital to American defense. The aggression is not ours. Ours is solely defense. But let this warning be clear. From now on, if German or Italian vessels of war enter the waters, the protection of which is necessary for American defense, they do so at their own peril.
Some indeed still hold to the now somewhat obvious delusion that we of the United States can safely permit the United States to become a lone island, a lone island in a world dominated by the philosophy of force. In our American unity, we will pursue two obvious and simultaneous courses; we will extend to the opponents of force the material resources of this nation; and, at the same time, we will harness and speed up the use of those resources in order that we ourselves in the Americas may have equipment and training equal to the task of any emergency and every defense.
The Government of Italy has now chosen to preserve what it terms its "freedom of action" and to fulfill what it states are its promises to Germany. In so doing it has manifested disregard for the rights and security of other nations, disregard for the lives of the peoples of those nations which are directly threatened by this spread of the war; and has evidenced its unwillingness to find the means through pacific negotiations for the satisfaction of what it believes are its legitimate aspirations.
On this tenth day of June, , the hand that held the dagger has struck it into the back of its neighbor.
Biography: Franklin Delano Roosevelt | American Experience | Official Site | PBS
The property of all churches will be seized by the Reich and its puppets. The cross and all other symbols of religion are to be forbidden. The clergy are to be forever silenced under penalty of the concentration camps In the place of the churches of our civilization, there is to be set up an international Nazi church - a church which will be served by orators sent out by the Nazi government.
And in place of the cross of Christ will be put two symbols - the swastika and the naked sword.
Hitler has often protested that his plans for conquest do not extend across the Atlantic Ocean I have in my possession a secret map, made in Germany by Hitler's government - by the planners of the new world order. Eleanor preferred to be called by her middle name. She was the fifth-cousin once removed to her husband the niece of president Theodore Roosevelt. Eleanor and FDR had 6 children. FDR was stricken with a paralytic illness in August , 16 years after his marriage, which resulted in permanent paralysis of his legs which was believed to be polio.
Franklin D. Roosevelt belonged to the Democrat Political Party. He was 51 years old when he was inaugurated as the 32nd president. Inauguration is a president's swearing-in ceremony. He was the only president to serve for four terms and the only president who was confined to a wheelchair, although he concealed his paralysis from the public as much as possible for political reasons. Garner and Wallace stood as Vice presidents. For additional facts refer to his Presidential Cabinet members. Short Biography of Franklin Roosevelt: What he was like! Facts and Info: Franklin D. Roosevelt was 6 feet 2 inches in height and weighed approximately lbs.
He had brown hair, grey-blue eyes and a fair to ruddy complexion.